U(1) x SU(2) x SU(3)

each panel 16 x 10 [ inches ]    |    ensemble  112 x 18 [ inches ] approx    |    watercolour / acrylic
the standard model of particle physics is a non-abelian gauge theory with the symmetry group U(1)xSU(2)xSU(3)

on Anaxaminder [ circa 570 BCE ]

Anaximander claimed that the cosmic order is not monarchic but geometric, and that this causes the equilibrium of the earth, which is lying in the centre of the universe. This is the projection on nature of a new political order and a new space organized around a centre which is the static point of the system in the society as in nature (1). In this space there is isonomy (equal rights) and all the forces are symmetrical and transferable. The decisions are now taken by the assembly of demos in the agora which is lying in the middle of the city (2).

1. C. Mosse (1984) La Grece archaique d’Homere a Eschyle. Edition du Seuil. p 235
2. J. P. Vernart (1982) Les origins de la pensee grecque. PUF Pariw. p 128, J. P. Vernart (1982) The origins of the Greek thought. Cornell University Press.

Peplos Kore    |    circa 530 BCE    |    Parian marble    |    height : 120 cm    |    Acropolis Museum  Athens

Ruins of Vijianuggur [Vijayanagara] near Calamapoor [Kamalapuram]

Photograph of the ruins at Vijayanagara from the ‘Photographs to Illustrate the Ancient Architecture of Southern Indian’ collection, taken by Edmund David Lyon in c. 1868.

Vijayanagara, the City of Victory, was the most powerful Hindu kingdom in Southern India from 1336 until the defeat by the Muslim armies in 1565. It was built on the bank of the Tungabhadra River and is surrounded by granite hills. The ruins of this vast royal city incorporate distinct zones and are divided into two main groups, the sacred centre and the royal centre. The royal centre was the residential area of the royal household and included zones associated with the ceremonial, administrative and military functions of the rulers.

The Ramachandra Temple is situated in the royal centre and dates from the 15th century. It is dedicated to the cult of Rama and was most likely used as the state chapel by the Vijayanagara rulers. The main temple, set in the centre of a rectangular compound, is richly carved with reliefs depicting royal scenes and scenes from the Ramayana epic.

Lyon wrote: ‘Passing round the temple to the right, its northern façade is seen as represented in this view. On the left, a portion of the porch…is seen, and also another entrance which exists on this side, and the carvings on its face. Entering the building by either of these doors, the whole interior is found beautifully carved…four pillars of black polished granite and the whole roof are master-pieces of carving.’

Photographer: Lyon, Edmund David

Medium: Photographic print

Date: 1868

British Library

Edward Witten on the anthropic principle

What about new approaches to the fine-tuning problem such as the relaxion or “Nnaturalness”?

Unfortunately, it has been very hard to find a conventional natural explanation of the dark energy and hierarchy problems. Reluctantly, I think we have to take seriously the anthropic alternative, according to which we live in a universe that has a “landscape”of possibilities, which are realised in different regions of space or maybe in different portions of the quantum mechanical wavefunction, and we inevitably live where we can. I have no idea if this interpretation is correct, but it provides a yardstick against which to measure other proposals. Twenty years ago, I used to find the anthropic interpretation of the universe upsetting, in part because of the difficulty it might present in understanding physics. Over the years I have mellowed. I suppose I reluctantly came to accept that the universe was not created for our convenience in understanding it.

a very good interview the full text of which can be found here


Calabi–Yau manifold

Applications in superstring theory

Calabi–Yau manifolds are important in superstring theory. Essentially, Calabi–Yau manifolds are shapes that satisfy the requirement of space for the six “unseen” spatial dimensions of string theory, which may be smaller than our currently observable lengths as they have not yet been detected. A popular alternative known as large extra dimensions, which often occurs in braneworld models, is that the Calabi–Yau is large but we are confined to a small subset on which it intersects a D-brane. Further extensions into higher dimensions are currently being explored with additional ramifications for general relativity.

In the most conventional superstring models, ten conjectural dimensions in string theory are supposed to come as four of which we are aware, carrying some kind of fibration with fiber dimension six. Compactification on Calabi–Yau n-folds are important because they leave some of the original supersymmetry unbroken. More precisely, in the absence of fluxes, compactification on a Calabi–Yau 3-fold (real dimension 6) leaves one quarter of the original supersymmetry unbroken if the holonomy is the full SU(3).

More generally, a flux-free compactification on an n-manifold with holonomy SU(n) leaves 21−n of the original supersymmetry unbroken, corresponding to 26−n supercharges in a compactification of type II supergravity or 25−n supercharges in a compactification of type I. When fluxes are included the supersymmetry condition instead implies that the compactification manifold be a generalized Calabi–Yau, a notion introduced by Hitchin (2003). These models are known as flux compactifications.

F-theory compactifications on various Calabi–Yau four-folds provide physicists with a method to find a large number of classical solutions in the so-called string theory landscape.

Connected with each hole in the Calabi–Yau space is a group of low-energy string vibrational patterns. Since string theory states that our familiar elementary particles correspond to low-energy string vibrations, the presence of multiple holes causes the string patterns to fall into multiple groups, or families. Although the following statement has been simplified, it conveys the logic of the argument: if the Calabi–Yau has three holes, then three families of vibrational patterns and thus three families of particles will be observed experimentally.

Logically, since strings vibrate through all the dimensions, the shape of the curled-up ones will affect their vibrations and thus the properties of the elementary particles observed. For example, Andrew Strominger and Edward Witten have shown that the masses of particles depend on the manner of the intersection of the various holes in a Calabi–Yau. In other words, the positions of the holes relative to one another and to the substance of the Calabi–Yau space was found by Strominger and Witten to affect the masses of particles in a certain way. This is true of all particle properties.

CC BY-SA 3.0, image credit

Quantifying national responsibility for climate breakdown


Interpretation : These figures indicate that high-income countries have a greater degree of responsibility for climate damages than previous methods have implied. These results offer a just framework for attributing national responsibility for excess emissions, and a guide for determining national liability for damages related to climate change, consistent with the principles of planetary boundaries and equal access to atmospheric commons.

thanks to @jasonhickel

Two Horses (二駿圖)

[panorama360 is360=”false” src=”https://www.billtoole.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/yang-wei_two-horses.jpg” src_width=”6465″ src_height=”600″ style=”height: 300px; margin-bottom: 10px;”][/panorama360]
Yang Wei (楊微)    |    Jin Dynasty (1115–1234)    |    Ink and color on silk [ 25.2 x 81 cm ]
Liaoning Provincial Museum [ 遼寧省博物館 / 辽宁省博物馆 ], Shenyang

La Via Campesina North America

This powerful exposé of United Nations Food Systems Summit shows how UN Secretary General António Guterres is consolidating a corporate takeover of the UN system, through partnerships with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and billionaires behind the ‘Great Reset’. La Via Campesina North America and journalist Camila Escalante unveil the role of megaphilanthropy and even his royal highness Prince Charles in trying to displace peasant agriculture. Following the stunning failure of the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), its president, Agnes Kalibata, was repurposed to head the Summit. On September 23rd, the Summit will occur virtually and without the participation of LVC, as peasant organizations and popular movements across the world reject corporate control over food governance. Only redistributive land reform, agroecology, and food sovereignty can ensure healthy and just food systems for all, as stated in the UN Declaration on the Rights of Peasants.